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Updated27/03/2017 03:45 

Space Weather Observations, Alerts, and Forecast

3-day Solar-Geophysical Forecast

3-Day Text Forecast of Solar and Geophysical Activity

Space Weather Alerts

Space Weather Alerts - Current
Space Weather Alerts - Month

Excellent primer on space weather

Real Time Images of the Sun

Click for time-lapse image of the sun
SOHO EIT 284 image of the sun
Mauna Loa Solar Image
Latest Mauna Loa image of the Sun

The sun is constantly monitored for sun spots and coronal mass ejections. EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope) images the solar atmosphere at several wavelengths, and therefore, shows solar material at different temperatures. In the images taken at 304 Angstrom the bright material is at 60,000 to 80,000 degrees Kelvin. In those taken at 171 Angstrom, at 1 million degrees. 195 Angstrom images correspond to about 1.5 million Kelvin, 284 Angstrom to 2 million degrees. The hotter the temperature, the higher you look in the solar atmosphere.

What is CCD bakeout
If the images shown above display the message 'CCD BAKEOUT', there is nothing wrong with SOHO's EIT instrument, it is taken off line in order to maintain the performance of the instrument. The images will resume within 2-3 weeks. For more information go here

Real Time Solar X-ray and Solar Wind

Solar X-Ray Image
Graph showing current solar x-rays
Real-Time Solar Wind
Graph showing Real-Time Solar Wind
Real-Time Solar Wind data broadcast from NASA's ACE satellite.

The Solar Cycle is observed by counting the frequency and placement of sunspots visible on the Sun. Solar minimum occurred in December, 2008. Solar maximum is expected to occur in January, 2014.

Solar X-ray Flux
Graph showing Real-Time Solar X-ray Flux
This plot shows 3-days of 5-minute solar x-ray flux values measured on the SWPC primary and secondary GOES satellites.
Satellite Environment Plot
Graph showing Real-Time Satellite Environment Plot
The Satellite Environment Plot combines satellite and ground-based data to provide an overview of the current geosynchronous satellite environment.

Auroral Activity Extrapolated from NOAA POES

Northern Hemi Auroral Map
Current Northern hemispheric power input map
Southern Hemi Auroral Map
Current Southern hemispheric power input map

Instruments on board the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) continually monitor the power flux carried by the protons and electrons that produce aurora in the atmosphere. SWPC has developed a technique that uses the power flux observations obtained during a single pass of the satellite over a polar region (which takes about 25 minutes) to estimate the total power deposited in an entire polar region by these auroral particles. The power input estimate is converted to an auroral activity index that ranges from 1 to 10.

Sunspots - latest SDO/HMI Continuum and the SDO/HMI Magnetogram images

HMI Continuum
latest HMI Continuum image
HMI Magnetogram
latest HMI Magnetogram image

Video - HMI latest Continuum 2 day mp4
Video - HMI latest Magnetogram 2 day mp4

Opens in a new window, may take awhile to load

Opens in a new window, may take awhile to load

Sunspots yesterday - 11

The HMI (Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager) HMI is an instrument designed to study oscillations and the magnetic field at the solar surface, or photosphere. HMI is one of three instruments on the Solar Dynamics Observatory; together, the suite of instruments observes the Sun nearly continuously and takes a terabyte of data a day. HMI observes the full solar disk at 6173 with a resolution of 1 arcsecond.
HMI is a successor to the Michelson Doppler Imager on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. The most prominent features are the sunspots. This is very much how the Sun looks like in the visible range of the spectrum (for example, looking at it using special 'eclipse' glasses: Remember, do not ever look directly at the Sun!). The magnetogram image shows the magnetic field in the solar photosphere, with black and white indicating opposite polarities.

Check out my sunspots page for news and last 30 day sunspots numbers


Space Weather Images and Information (excluded from copyright) courtesy of:
NOAA / NWS Space Weather Prediction Center
Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (HAO/NCAR)
and SOHO (ESA & NASA).

Space Weather links:
Excellent primer on space weather
3-Day Forecast of Solar and Geophysical Activity
Space Weather Now
Today's Space Weather
Real-Time Solar Wind
Space Weather Outlooks
Space Weather Bulletins
Space Weather Alerts and Warnings
Space Weather Alerts - Current Month
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)
The Very Latest SOHO Images
Sunspots data archive from SOHO

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